This report used new analytical techniques and newly available data to answer whether demographic factors are associated with two sentencing decisions:

  1. whether to impose a sentence of prison or probation, and
  2. the length of imprisonment when imposing a prison sentence.

The refined analysis included more than 300,000 individuals sentenced for a federal felony or Class A misdemeanor between fiscal years 2017 and 2021, for which the Commission received complete sentencing documentation.

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